• user warning: Table './loughbo_loughbocom/cache_filter' is marked as crashed and should be repaired query: SELECT data, created, headers, expire, serialized FROM cache_filter WHERE cid = '2:8f5e6695cab839f89ab23933ca838d6d' in /home/loughbo/public_html/includes/cache.inc on line 26.
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</w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:lsdexception></w:latentstyles>\n</xml>&lt;![endif]--> &lt;!--[if gte mso 10]>\n<style>\n /* Style Definitions */\ntable.MsoNormalTable\n {mso-style-name:\"Table Normal\";\n mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;\n mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;\n mso-style-noshow:yes;\n mso-style-priority:99;\n mso-style-parent:\"\";\n mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;\n mso-para-margin-top:0cm;\n mso-para-margin-right:0cm;\n mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt;\n mso-para-margin-left:0cm;\n line-height:115%;\n mso-pagination:widow-orphan;\n font-size:11.0pt;\n font-family:Calibri;\n mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;\n mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;\n mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;\n mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}\n</style>\n&lt;![endif]--> &lt;!--StartFragment-->\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; \">Allow me to set the scene. As league cricketers we&rsquo;ve all been there, watching a standard of cricket that&rsquo;s slightly higher than our own, wondering &ldquo;what&rsquo;s the difference between me and that player?&rdquo; &ldquo;Why&rsquo;ve they progressed yet I haven&rsquo;t?&rdquo; &ldquo;How can I get to the next level?&rdquo; Well perhaps the answer lies within psychology.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;\nline-height:115%;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Within cricket there is a need to highlight psychological traits that distinguish performers at the height of the sport from those at the subsequent levels. Having considered that physical capabilities become more even at higher levels</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">1,</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> sport psychology strives to predict performance based on personality and psychological attributes</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">2.</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Evidence suggests that such attributes significantly contribute to sports performance</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">3,4,5 </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">with it becoming widely acknowledged that at least 40 to 90% of success within contemporary sport is as a result of mental factors</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">6</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;\nmso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">It has been proposed that psychological traits are important predictors of success</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">7</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">, with the winner invariably being the athlete who is the strongest mentally on a given day</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">7</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">. Considering this, the English and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) now integrate mental skills training into their practical sessions in hope of building a winning environment</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">8</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">. And we can all see how effective that has been!</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;\nfont-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Top-level sport is characterised by &lsquo;a demand to excel at optimal levels while performing under conditions that are considered extremely demanding&rsquo;</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">9</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">, suggesting that elite cricketers possess numerous psychological traits that stand them apart from you and I</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">10.</span><b style=\"mso-bidi-font-weight:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> </span></b><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">But which traits are these?</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;\nfont-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Through comparing elite, sub-elite and non-elite English cricketers levels of mental toughness, coping strategies and motivation, I hoped to highlight a profile of elite cricket performance, thus allowing members of the LCA to become aware of what was required to progress in the game. In addition, I hoped to educate elite performers of their strengths and weaknesses, and the need to develop/maintain these if they wish to remain at the top level for a prolonged period.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">In doing so, I identified a psychological trait that may be associated with superior/inferior cricket performance; constancy. The construct encompasses a cricketer&rsquo;s capacity to concentrate and ability to show grit and determination</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">2</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">. The concept reflects an association between successful players tendency to keep a task oriented focus, whilst avoiding a preoccupation with negative outcomes. This suggests that non-elite cricketers may be more likely than elite and sub-elite players to become preoccupied with negative outcomes. Considering that preoccupations have been linked to decreased effort levels and/or quitting</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">6,</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> this implies that non-elite cricketers may have not progressed due to them not applying as much effort as their superior counterparts. Considering this, non-elite players and their coaches should be encouraged to highlight the positive outcomes that accompany performances, as well as using a task oriented focus.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Athlete&rsquo;s scoring high in constancy have been found to maintain their focus when faced with provocation, or &lsquo;sledging&rsquo; as you and I know it. Having considered my findings, it appears that cricketers at higher levels may be better able to deal with &lsquo;sledging&rsquo; than non-elite players, suggesting that cricketers must be willing to </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">engage in the &lsquo;high intensity confrontation between batter and bowler&rsquo; if they are to reach elite levels</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">2</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">.</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Furthermore, it suggests that cricketers may require &lsquo;chronic&rsquo; mental toughness if they are to reach the top level and remain there</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">11</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">In regards to motivation, I discovered a trend in reference to external regulation. Sub-elite cricketers scored higher than elite and non-elite players on this measure, suggesting that sub-elite cricketers are perhaps more motivated to participate by rewards and/or to satisfy an external demand (e.g., a coach). As a result, it may be assumed that although cricketers did not differ significantly on measures of internal motivation, elite cricketers may have higher levels of self-determined motivation that accounts for their increased success.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:\njustify;line-height:normal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Reasons for such differences may be that elite athletes spend a greater period of time performing their sport, meaning that they are likely to experience more periods of distress from slumps in form for example. It is unlikely that athletes could remain highly motivated throughout the course of a career and such hardships without high levels of intrinsic motivation</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">6,12</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">. Having considered the heavy workload placed on professional cricketers within the modern game, it seems likely that the inherent pleasure gained from participating is an important criterion in distinguishing between cricketers. This supports suggestions that intrinsic motivators are necessary for developing expertise</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">13.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:\n8.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:\ntext1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align:\njustify;line-height:normal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><b style=\"mso-bidi-font-weight:normal\"><u><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;\nfont-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"text-decoration: none; \">&nbsp;</span></span></span></o:p></span></u></b></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">The current findings are in contrast to past work</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \"> </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">that suggests successful athletes use increased levels of introjected and external regulation</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">14</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">. This may not have been the case within this study considering cricket&rsquo;s format and salary for example. The sport demands excessive amounts of time and effort, suggesting that elite players may have progressed due to the inherent pleasure they gain from participating i.e., they practice for pleasure and in doing so improve more/quicker than other cricketers. This is in line with past research that proposes </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">performers with high levels of self determined motivation are more successful</span><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">15</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">. In contrast, sub-elite cricketers may perceive the external rewards that accompany participation as not great enough for what they put in, resulting in them falling behind elite cricketers due them being less motivated to practice etc. The implications of this are that sub-elite cricketers may need to be made aware of the external rewards that await them should they progress to an elite level e.g., sponsorships, increased salary.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:\nArial\"><span style=\"color:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Within my study, no significant differences were found between performance levels and the coping strategies that cricketers employed. This suggests that the level a player reaches may not vary as a function of coping strategies. As to why no differences were found however, it may be that rather than elite, sub-elite and non-elite cricketers not differing at all, they did not vary in terms of the scenario used within the present study, which was a slump in form.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">So what does all this mean for you? Well it is hoped that through highlighting the importance of constancy in particular, you will become aware of how important the attribute may be if you wish to progress. Furthermore, the suggestions highlighted may be particularly useful for coaches hoping to develop the next batch of young cricket hopefuls. Perhaps, with a little bit of extra work in these particular areas, 2012 can be the season where your performances go from strength to strength.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">For further information or a copy of the full paper contact Adam Wilson at </span></span></span></p>\n<span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \">\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><a href=\"mailto:willow1988@hotmail.co.uk\"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">willow1988@hotmail.co.uk</span></span></a></p>\n</span><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \">\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\">&nbsp;</p>\n</span><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \">\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"text-align:justify;line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n</span></span>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">1 </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Cleary, M. (2005). The stakes are high. </span></span></span><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><a title=\"Search for Rugby World\" href=\"file://localhost/javascript/__doLinkPostBack(\'\',\'mdb%257E%257Es3h%257C%257Cjdb%257E%257Es3hjnh%257C%257Css%257E%257EJN%2520%2522Rugby%2520World%2522%257C%257Csl%257E%257Ejh\',\'\')%3B\"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; text-decoration: none; \">Rugby World</span></i></a><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">,</span></i><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> 543</span></i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">, 46-47.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;\nmso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-fareast-language:\nEN-GB\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">2 </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Sheard, M. (2010). <i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:\nnormal\">Mental toughness: The mindset behind sporting achievement.</i> Hove: Routledge.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:\nArial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">3</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Cohn, P. J. (1991). An exploratory study on peak performance in golf. <i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\">Sport&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </i></span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:\n&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;\nmso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><o:p></o:p></i></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Psychologist</span></i><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">,</span></i><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> 5</span></i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> (1), 1-14.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;\nmso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-fareast-language:\nEN-GB\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">4</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Orlick, P. &amp; Partington, J. (1991). </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">An analysis of Olympic sport psychology </span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:\n&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;\nmso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">consultants best-ever consulting experiences. </span></span></span><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><a title=\"Search for Sport Psychologist\" href=\"file://localhost/javascript/__doLinkPostBack(\'\',\'mdb%257E%257Es3h%257C%257Cjdb%257E%257Es3hjnh%257C%257Css%257E%257EJN%2520%2522Sport%2520Psychologist%2522%257C%257Csl%257E%257Ejh\',\'\')%3B\"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; text-decoration: none; \">Sport Psychologist</span></i></a><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">,<i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"> </i></span><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">5 </span></i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">(2), 11-</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:\n&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;\nmso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">183.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:\n&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;\nmso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">5</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Smith, R. E. &amp; Christensen, D. S. (1995). Psychological skills as predictors of </span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:\n&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;\nmso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">performance and survival in professional baseball. <i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\">Journal of Sport &amp; </i></span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:\n&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;\nmso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><o:p></o:p></i></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Exercise Psychology, 17 </span></i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">(4), 399-415.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;\nmso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">6</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Williams, J. M. (2010). <i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:\nnormal\">Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak </i></span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:\nnormal\"><span style=\"mso-bidi-font-weight:bold\"><o:p></o:p></span></i></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">performance</span></i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> (6<sup>th</sup> ed.). Virginia: McGrath-Hill.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">7 </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Gucciardi, D. F. &amp; Gordon, S. (2009). Development and preliminary </span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">validation of the Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory (CMTI). <i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\">Journal of </i></span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:\n12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial\"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><o:p></o:p></i></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Sports Sciences, 27</span></i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> (12), 1293-1310.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;\nmso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-fareast-language:\nEN-GB\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">8 </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">ECB (2011a). </span><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">The ECB performance psychology team.</span></i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Retrieved February 3,</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">2011 from </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">http://www.ecb.co.uk/ecb/national-cricket-performance-centre-</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">loughborough/the-ecb-performance-psychology-team,2110,BP.html </span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:\nArial\"><span style=\"color:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">9 </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Jones, G., Hanton, S. &amp; Connaughton, D. (2007). A framework of mental </span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:\nArial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">toughness in the world&rsquo;s best performers. <i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\">T</i></span><i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">he Sport Psychologist,</span></i><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> 21</span></i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">, 243-</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:\n12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">264.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:\nArial\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">10 </span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Starkes, J. L. &amp; Ericsson, K. A. (2003). <i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\">Expert performance in sports; Advances in </i></span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:\n&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;\nmso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><o:p></o:p></i></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">research on sport expertise.</span></i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Leeds: Human Kinetics.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;\nmso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">11</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Bull, S. J., Shambrook, C. J., James, W. &amp; Brooks, J. E. (2005). Towards an </span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">understanding of mental toughness in elite English cricketers.<i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"> </i></span><i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Journal of </span></i></span></span><i><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;\nfont-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial\"><o:p></o:p></span></i></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">Applied Sport Psychology, 17, </span></i><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">209-227.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:\nArial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial\"><i><o:p></o:p></i></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">12</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Hardy, L., Jones, J. J. &amp; Gould, D. (1996). <i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\">Understanding psychological preparation for sport: Theory and practice of elite performers.</i> New Jersey: John Wiley &amp; Sons. </span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:\n&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;\nmso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\"><o:p></o:p></i></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"line-height:normal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">13</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Weissensteiner, J., Abernethy, B. &amp; Farrow. D. (2009). Towards the development of a conceptual model of expertise in cricket batting; A Grounded Theory approach. <i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\">Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21, </i>276-292.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:8.0pt;font-family:\nArial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">14</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Chantal, Y., Guay, F., Dobreva-Martinova, T. &amp; Vallerand, R. J. (1996). Motivation </span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;\nfont-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:\nArial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;mso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">and elite performance: An exploratory investigation with Bulgarian athletes. <i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\">International Journal of Sport Psychology, 27</i> (2), 173-182.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-fareast-font-family:\n&quot;Times New Roman&quot;;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:text1;\nmso-fareast-language:EN-GB\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 8pt; \">15</span><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \"> Amiot, C. E., Gaudreau, P. &amp; Blanchard, C. M. (2004). Self determination, coping </span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;\ncolor:black;mso-themecolor:text1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">and goal attainment in sport. <i style=\"mso-bidi-font-style:normal\">Journal of Sport Exercise Psychology, 26, </i>396-</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:\n12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:\ntext1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n<p class=\"MsoNormal\" style=\"margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;line-height:\nnormal;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none\"><span style=\"font-family: Verdana; \"><span style=\"color: rgb(192, 192, 192); \"><span style=\"font-size: 12pt; \">411.</span></span></span><span style=\"font-size:\n12.0pt;font-family:Arial;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-themecolor:\ntext1\"><o:p></o:p></span></p>\n&lt;!--EndFragment-->', created = 1498460237, expire = 1498546637, headers = '', serialized = 0 WHERE cid = '2:8f5e6695cab839f89ab23933ca838d6d' in /home/loughbo/public_html/includes/cache.inc on line 109.

Adam Wilson 'What's the difference'


20 December, 2011
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Allow me to set the scene. As league cricketers we’ve all been there, watching a standard of cricket that’s slightly higher than our own, wondering “what’s the difference between me and that player?” “Why’ve they progressed yet I haven’t?” “How can I get to the next level?” Well perhaps the answer lies within psychology.

Within cricket there is a need to highlight psychological traits that distinguish performers at the height of the sport from those at the subsequent levels. Having considered that physical capabilities become more even at higher levels1, sport psychology strives to predict performance based on personality and psychological attributes2. Evidence suggests that such attributes significantly contribute to sports performance3,4,5 with it becoming widely acknowledged that at least 40 to 90% of success within contemporary sport is as a result of mental factors6.

It has been proposed that psychological traits are important predictors of success7, with the winner invariably being the athlete who is the strongest mentally on a given day7. Considering this, the English and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) now integrate mental skills training into their practical sessions in hope of building a winning environment8. And we can all see how effective that has been!

Top-level sport is characterised by ‘a demand to excel at optimal levels while performing under conditions that are considered extremely demanding’9, suggesting that elite cricketers possess numerous psychological traits that stand them apart from you and I10. But which traits are these?

Through comparing elite, sub-elite and non-elite English cricketers levels of mental toughness, coping strategies and motivation, I hoped to highlight a profile of elite cricket performance, thus allowing members of the LCA to become aware of what was required to progress in the game. In addition, I hoped to educate elite performers of their strengths and weaknesses, and the need to develop/maintain these if they wish to remain at the top level for a prolonged period.

In doing so, I identified a psychological trait that may be associated with superior/inferior cricket performance; constancy. The construct encompasses a cricketer’s capacity to concentrate and ability to show grit and determination2. The concept reflects an association between successful players tendency to keep a task oriented focus, whilst avoiding a preoccupation with negative outcomes. This suggests that non-elite cricketers may be more likely than elite and sub-elite players to become preoccupied with negative outcomes. Considering that preoccupations have been linked to decreased effort levels and/or quitting6, this implies that non-elite cricketers may have not progressed due to them not applying as much effort as their superior counterparts. Considering this, non-elite players and their coaches should be encouraged to highlight the positive outcomes that accompany performances, as well as using a task oriented focus.

Athlete’s scoring high in constancy have been found to maintain their focus when faced with provocation, or ‘sledging’ as you and I know it. Having considered my findings, it appears that cricketers at higher levels may be better able to deal with ‘sledging’ than non-elite players, suggesting that cricketers must be willing to engage in the ‘high intensity confrontation between batter and bowler’ if they are to reach elite levels2. Furthermore, it suggests that cricketers may require ‘chronic’ mental toughness if they are to reach the top level and remain there11.

In regards to motivation, I discovered a trend in reference to external regulation. Sub-elite cricketers scored higher than elite and non-elite players on this measure, suggesting that sub-elite cricketers are perhaps more motivated to participate by rewards and/or to satisfy an external demand (e.g., a coach). As a result, it may be assumed that although cricketers did not differ significantly on measures of internal motivation, elite cricketers may have higher levels of self-determined motivation that accounts for their increased success.

Reasons for such differences may be that elite athletes spend a greater period of time performing their sport, meaning that they are likely to experience more periods of distress from slumps in form for example. It is unlikely that athletes could remain highly motivated throughout the course of a career and such hardships without high levels of intrinsic motivation6,12. Having considered the heavy workload placed on professional cricketers within the modern game, it seems likely that the inherent pleasure gained from participating is an important criterion in distinguishing between cricketers. This supports suggestions that intrinsic motivators are necessary for developing expertise13.

 

The current findings are in contrast to past work that suggests successful athletes use increased levels of introjected and external regulation14. This may not have been the case within this study considering cricket’s format and salary for example. The sport demands excessive amounts of time and effort, suggesting that elite players may have progressed due to the inherent pleasure they gain from participating i.e., they practice for pleasure and in doing so improve more/quicker than other cricketers. This is in line with past research that proposes performers with high levels of self determined motivation are more successful15. In contrast, sub-elite cricketers may perceive the external rewards that accompany participation as not great enough for what they put in, resulting in them falling behind elite cricketers due them being less motivated to practice etc. The implications of this are that sub-elite cricketers may need to be made aware of the external rewards that await them should they progress to an elite level e.g., sponsorships, increased salary.

Within my study, no significant differences were found between performance levels and the coping strategies that cricketers employed. This suggests that the level a player reaches may not vary as a function of coping strategies. As to why no differences were found however, it may be that rather than elite, sub-elite and non-elite cricketers not differing at all, they did not vary in terms of the scenario used within the present study, which was a slump in form.

So what does all this mean for you? Well it is hoped that through highlighting the importance of constancy in particular, you will become aware of how important the attribute may be if you wish to progress. Furthermore, the suggestions highlighted may be particularly useful for coaches hoping to develop the next batch of young cricket hopefuls. Perhaps, with a little bit of extra work in these particular areas, 2012 can be the season where your performances go from strength to strength.

For further information or a copy of the full paper contact Adam Wilson at

willow1988@hotmail.co.uk

 

1 Cleary, M. (2005). The stakes are high. Rugby World, 543, 46-47.

2 Sheard, M. (2010). Mental toughness: The mindset behind sporting achievement. Hove: Routledge.

3 Cohn, P. J. (1991). An exploratory study on peak performance in golf. Sport      

Psychologist, 5 (1), 1-14.

4 Orlick, P. & Partington, J. (1991). An analysis of Olympic sport psychology

consultants best-ever consulting experiences. Sport Psychologist, 5 (2), 11-

183.

5 Smith, R. E. & Christensen, D. S. (1995). Psychological skills as predictors of

performance and survival in professional baseball. Journal of Sport &

Exercise Psychology, 17 (4), 399-415.

6 Williams, J. M. (2010). Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak

performance (6th ed.). Virginia: McGrath-Hill.

7 Gucciardi, D. F. & Gordon, S. (2009). Development and preliminary

validation of the Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory (CMTI). Journal of

Sports Sciences, 27 (12), 1293-1310.

8 ECB (2011a). The ECB performance psychology team. Retrieved February 3,

2011 from http://www.ecb.co.uk/ecb/national-cricket-performance-centre-

loughborough/the-ecb-performance-psychology-team,2110,BP.html

9 Jones, G., Hanton, S. & Connaughton, D. (2007). A framework of mental

toughness in the world’s best performers. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 243-

264.

10 Starkes, J. L. & Ericsson, K. A. (2003). Expert performance in sports; Advances in

research on sport expertise. Leeds: Human Kinetics.

11 Bull, S. J., Shambrook, C. J., James, W. & Brooks, J. E. (2005). Towards an

understanding of mental toughness in elite English cricketers. Journal of

Applied Sport Psychology, 17, 209-227.

12 Hardy, L., Jones, J. J. & Gould, D. (1996). Understanding psychological preparation for sport: Theory and practice of elite performers. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

13 Weissensteiner, J., Abernethy, B. & Farrow. D. (2009). Towards the development of a conceptual model of expertise in cricket batting; A Grounded Theory approach. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21, 276-292.

14 Chantal, Y., Guay, F., Dobreva-Martinova, T. & Vallerand, R. J. (1996). Motivation

and elite performance: An exploratory investigation with Bulgarian athletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 27 (2), 173-182.

15 Amiot, C. E., Gaudreau, P. & Blanchard, C. M. (2004). Self determination, coping

and goal attainment in sport. Journal of Sport Exercise Psychology, 26, 396-

411.

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